http://www.the12points.com


About

The Twelve Points are a statement of conservative principles, objectives, philosophy, and additional guiding considerations, composed by Karl Born, a young Indianapolis writer and attorney, beginning in early 2008, completed on July 2, 2009. The idea for the Twelve Points, along with several of the points, came from the "Seven Points," an older statement of conservative principles, created by a group of young conservatives at Indiana University, in 2003: Grand Old Cause. 

The purpose of the Twelve Points is to serve as a delivery mechanism for distilled, concentrated conservative thinking, offered in order to return completeness and clarity to popular conservatism, to spread knowledge of the true principles of conservatism throughout the conservative community, and to focus and promote agreement among conservatives. 

Over the past two decades, the conservative movement has lost its uniting sense of direction, which has rendered it confused, frustrated, and impotent. Certain crucial conservative principles and concepts have faded from our common memory and lost their rightful influence and, consequently, our fellow conservatives (including conservative leaders) too often can no longer be relied upon to understand them, to be committed to them, or to apply and advance them in a coherent way. No conservative should be satisfied with the results that this has produced in American public policy. 

The Twelve Points will help to solve this problem, this statement of conservative principles being an instrument by which we may frequently recur to these fundamental principles and keep points of conservative thought freshly in our minds, teach conservative thought to the newer and younger conservatives, and provide all conservatives with a means of together affirming that, yes, we still care about these conservative principles, and conservative principles still define this movement.

Send your questions or ideas to 
the12points@gmail.com!

The Ninth Amendment Synthesis


This is the latest version of the synthesis of material collected from the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Stamp Act version of the Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, the Massachusetts Constitution's original declaration of rights, the declaration of rights from the Vermont Constitution of 1786, the declaration of rights from the Indiana Constitution of 1816, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

Since creating it, I decided to go into greater depth, and methodically compiled a 200+ page listing of early American and pre-Independence English rights provisions.
 
I. We hold these Truths to be Self-Evident, that all men are created equal; that equals, by their nature, should be independent and free; that by this gift of equal creation, they are endowed by their Creator with rights both inherent and unalienable; that these rights, though often violated, and though sometimes deprecated by agreements or by pretense of right, may never be divested or extinguished; that these rights forbid intrusions on life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that they include the rights of self-defense and of the lawful acquisition, continued possession, and enjoyment and protection of property; that the American people have never, nor could they ever have, ceded or renounced these rights. 

II. That when English settlers founded what became our first states, they were, at that time, entitled to all the rights, liberties, and immunities of free and natural born subjects within the realm of England; that by such emigration they by no means forfeited, surrendered, or lost any of those rights, but that they were, and their descendants and descendants' peers are now are entitled to the exercise and enjoyment of all such of them, as their local and other circumstances, including American sovereignty and Independence, enable them to exercise and enjoy; that American citizens in every part of the United States are entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of natural born citizens.
 

III. That the foundation of English and American liberty, and of all free government, is a right in the people to participate in their legislative council; and that when the people cannot be properly be represented in that council, they are entitled to make the arrangements they need in order to exercise that right by some other means, particularly with respect to legislation of all cases of taxation and internal polity.
 

IV. That it is inseparably essential to the freedom of a people, and the undoubted right of Englishmen and Americans, that no taxes be imposed on them but with their own consent, given personally, or by their representatives; that all supplies to the government being free gifts of the people, it is unreasonable and inconsistent with the principles and spirit of our constitutions for any number of the people to grant to the government the property of anyone else; that
private property ought to be subservient to public uses, when necessity requires it, but whenever any particular man's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money; and that previous to any law being made to raise a tax, the purpose for which it is to be raised ought to appear evident to the Legislature to be of more service to the community, than the money would be if not collected. 

V. That the members of the legislative and executive branches should, at fixed periods, be reduced to a private station, return into that body from which they were originally taken, and the vacancies be supplied by frequent, certain, and regular elections in which all, or any part of the former members, to be again eligible, or ineligible, as the laws shall direct; that elections of members to serve as representatives of the people in assembly ought to be free; that all men, having sufficient evidence of permanent common interest with, and attachment to, the community have the right of suffrage
, an equal right to elect officers, and to be elected, for public employments, and cannot be taxed or deprived of their property for public uses without their own consent or that of their representatives so elected, nor bound by any law to which they have not, in like manner, assented, for the public good; and that each individual of the society has a right to be protected by it in the enjoyment of his life, liberty, and property, according to standing laws. 

VI. That all power is vested in, and consequently derived from, the people; that magistrates are their trustees and servants, and at all times amenable to them; that government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation or community; of all the various modes and forms of government that is best, which is capable of producing the greatest degree of happiness and safety and is most effectually secured against the danger of maladministration; and that, whenever any government shall be found inadequate or contrary to these purposes, a majority of the community hath an indubitable, unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform, alter or abolish it, in such manner as shall be judged most conducive to the public weal.

VII. That no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services; which, not being descendible, neither ought the offices of magistrate, legislator, or judge be hereditary.
 

VIII. That the people of the United States are entitled to the tradition of the common law, and more especially to the great and inestimable right of being tried by their peers of the vicinage, according to the course of that law; that in controversies respecting property and in suits between man and man, the ancient trial by jury is preferable to any other and ought to be held sacred; that 
every citizen of the United States ought to find a certain remedy, by having recourse to the laws, for all injuries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property, or character; that he ought to obtain right and justice freely and without purchase, completely and without denial, promptly and without delay, conformably to the laws; that in all capital or criminal prosecutions a man hath a right to demand and have described to him, fully and plainly, substantially and formally,the cause and nature of his accusation, to be confronted with the accusers and witnesses, to call for evidence in his favor, to be fully heard in his defence by himself, or his counsel, at his election,and to a speedy trial by an impartial jury of his vicinage, without whose unanimous consent he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; that in criminal prosecutions, the verification of facts in the vicinity where they happen, is one of the greatest securities of the life, liberty, and property of the citizen; that no man be arrested, miprisoned, despoiled, or deprived of his property, immunities, or privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled, or deprived of his life, liberty, or estate, except by the law of the land or the judgement of his peers.

IX. That excessive bail ought not to be required; nor excessive fines imposed, which shall instead be moderate; nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

X. That every inhabitant of the United States has the right to be secure against 
unreasonable searches and seizures of his person, his houses, his papers, and all his possessions, and so general warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places without evidence of a fact committed, or to seize any person or persons not named, or whose offense is not particularly described and supported by evidence, are grievous, oppressive, and illegal and ought not to be granted. 

XI. That the people of the United States are entitled to the benefit of such of the English statutes, as existed at the time of English settlement of the American colonies; and which they have, by experience, respectively found to be applicable to their several local and other circumstances, and which they have supplemented with their own statutes and fundamental laws.
 

XII. That they are likewise entitled to all the immunities and privileges that were granted and confirmed to them by royal charters or that have been secured by the United States Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, the several declarations of rights asserted by the colonists, or the several states' constitutions and codes.


XIII. That they have a right peaceably to assemble, consider of their grievances, and petition or address the government in the manner of their choice; and that all prosecutions, prohibitory proclamations, and commitments for the same, are illegal; that the freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty and can never be restrained but by despotic governments. 

XIV. That a well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided as dangerous to liberty; and that, in all cases, the military should be under strict subordination to, and be governed by, the civil power; that the keeping of a Standing army in these states in times of peace is against law.
 

XV. It is indispensably necessary to good government, and rendered essential by the English and American constitutions alike, that the constituent branches of the legislature be independent of each other; that, therefore, the exercise of legislative power in these states, by any council appointed during pleasure, is unconstitutional, dangerous, and destructive to the freedom of American legislation; that the legislative and executive powers of the state should be separate and distinct from the judicative; that all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority without consent of the representatives of the people is injurious to their rights and ought not to be exercised.
 

XVI. That 
no persons shall hold more than on lucrative office at the same time, except as in the Constitution is expressly permitted; that no person shall be appointed as a County officer, within any county, who shall not have been a citizen and an inhabitant therein one year next preceding his appointment; that all town, and township officers shall be appointed in such manner as shall be directed by law.

XVII. That the extension of the jurisdiction of the courts of admiralty beyond their ancient limits has a manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of Americans; that 
no person can in any case be subject to law-martial, or to any penalties or pains, by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army or navy, and except the militia in actual service, but by authority of the legislature.. 

XVIII. That the people have a right to uniform government; and therefore, that no government separate from, or independent of, the governments of the several states or a duly constituted government of the United States, ought to be erected or established within the limits thereof.

XIX. The people of each State shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other State, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any State, to any other State, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any State, on the property of the United States, or either of them.

XX. That no free government, or the blessings of liberty, can be preserved to any people but by a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, frugality, and virtue and by frequent recurrence to fundamental principles.
 

XXI. That religion, or the duty which we owe to our Creator and the manner of discharging it, can be directed by reason and conviction, not by force or violence; and therefore, all men are equally entitled to the free exercise of religion, according to the dictates of conscience; that none 
shall be hurt, molested, or restrained, in his person, liberty, or estate, for worshipping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience ; or for his religious profession of sentiments, provided he doth not disturb the public peace, or obstruct others in their religious worship; and that it is the mutual and moral duty of all to practice Christian forbearance, love, and charity towards each other.

XXII. That the people have a right to keep and to bear arms for the common defence.

XXIII. 
That the privilege and benefit of the writ of habeas corpus shall be enjoyed in this commonwealth, in the most free, easy, cheap, expeditious, and ample manner ; and shall not be suspended by the legislature, except upon the most urgent and pressing occasions, and for a limited time, not exceeding twelve months.

XXIV. 
That laws made to punish for actions done before the existence of such laws, and which have not been declared crimes by preceding laws, are unjust, oppressive, and inconsistent with the fundamental principles of a free government; that no subject ought, in any case, or in any time, to be declared guilty of treason or felony by the legislature.

XXV. That t
he legislature ought frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances, for correcting, strengthening, and confirming the laws, and for making new laws, as the common good may require.

XXVI. 
That no act of a legislature shall be in force until it shall have been published in print, unless in cases of emergency.

XXVII. That 
the freedom of deliberation , speech, and debate, in either house of the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever.

XXVIII. 
That in no case shall nonresident proprietors be taxed higher than residents. The navigable waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, and the carrying places between the same, shall be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of the said territory as to the citizens of the United States, and those of any other States that may be admitted into the union, without any tax, impost, or duty therefor.

XXIX. That 
as the holding any part of the human Creation in slavery, or involuntary servitude, can only originate in usurpation and tyranny, there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.